09)意志・自発性・想像力

この世で具現化される決断や行為のベースに、過去の事象が直接の原因となって生じる結果ではない、即ち、因果の流れから独立している力、自由意志というものがあれば、「これらは真の意味で自発性がある」ということになる。自由意志とは、原初からの存在、創造主(自然宇宙そのものとも言える)の意志性・創造性・生命性から個々の生命に分け与えられる根源的な非物質エネルギーである。

一方、決断や行為の内容・具現化のプロセスは、当然のことながら、過去の事象に影響されている。いくらオリジナリティーの高い発明でも、既に存在しているものを組み合わせたり、利用したりしているのだ。又、通常は、先人たちの開発した言語、数学、科学知識などのお世話にもなっている。

自由意志・自発性があるかどうかという問題は、飽くまでも、個々人の行使する意思決定の力が、どこから来たものかという話なのだ。例えば、強制された行為のベースに、自由意志も自発性もないのは当然であり、議論の余地はない。では、食欲や性欲など本能的なものが、主たる意思決定の動機であった場合、そこには、どの程度、自由意志や自発性があるのだろうか。難しいテーマになってくる。

そもそも、自由意志など存在しないとする決定論という説もある。原初からの原因と法則に従って、自然宇宙の全てはプログラム通りに進行するという考えだ。残念ながら、この説を前提として世の中を考えると、人間はアンドロイドとなり、人間にとって、考えること自体が意味と価値を失ってしまう。

人間の思考を支え、特徴付けるものとして、想像力・連想力・推察力が存在する。この想像力・連想力・推察力のパワーの違いが、人間と人間以外の動物とを大きく隔てているのだ。目前の危険を察知する、食物のありかを突き止める、その程度の思考であれば、人間と動物に大差はない。大差は、人間が想像力・連想力・推察力を駆使することによって、時空を超えて思考する点にある。

ここで、意志(自由意志に限定されない広い意味、過去の事象が意思決定に直接関与している場合を含む)と想像力・連想力・推察力を関連付けてみよう。意志はこの想像力・連想力・推察力に方向性を持たせ、高度な意味ある論理を伴った思考を生み出す力である(逆の言い方をすれば、意志をベースに持つことのない想像力・連想力・推察力は、しばしば、空想と言われるものを生み出す)。そして、どのような意志の底にも、意味と価値を伴う感情のエネルギーが流れていることに留意しなければならない。従い、思考は論理的でなければならないが、通常、思考の方向性は、予め、意志により、即ち、その底を流れる意味と価値を伴う感情のエネルギーによって、決定されているのである。言い方を換えれば、「思考は、通常、先に方向性や結論があって、それに向かって論理が進んでいくことが多い」ということだ。社会科学の分野では勿論のこと、実験と帰納法的思考をベースとする自然科学の分野でも、閃きなどが先にあって、偉大な法則が発見されることが多い。

09)意志・自発性・想像力” への23件のコメント

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