07)文化の伝承

専門家によると、チンパンジーにも文化があり、石器を使う集団と使わない集団がある。「子供は親や所属集団の大人の真似をして文化を吸収する」と言う。従って、何を食べ、どのような道具を使うかは、地域で異なる。子供の心には、「親や大人と同じことをしたい」という感情が強く紐付け(紐付けについては「心は鏡」の項を参照のこと)されている。子供は、見て、真似て、覚えるだけで、親は人間のように教えることはしない。

一方、人間の子供の心にも、「親や大人と同じことをしたい」という感情は紐付けされているが、これは、チンパンジーほどに強くはない。弱い紐付けだ。従って、親は子供に、いちいち教育しなければならないのだが、逆に、この紐付けの弱さが人間の文化の発展を促進してきた。親の言うことを余り聞かない子供たちは、今や、親や所属集団の先輩たちを通り越し、地球規模の文化を形成しつつある。科学技術に支えられたメディアの進化と発展により、膨大な知識を容易に入手できるようになって、文化の質も変わりつつある。

さて、文化の伝承だが、現代の通説通り、本当に後天的な経験や学習だけが担い手なのだろうか。本仮説によれば、集合記憶感情伝達(「集合記憶感情伝達」の項を参照のこと)も、その担い手の一つだ。

ここで、上述のチンパンジーの子供に見られる強い紐付けと人間の子供に見られる弱い紐付けについて、更に考えてみよう。この紐付けの強度の違いは、それぞれの祖先たちのあの世(「あの世とこの世」の項を参照のこと)に蓄積された共通経験の記憶に由来するものである。チンパンジーの子供には、幾世代にもわたって長い間、大人の真似をして早く大人にならなければ、生きていけない事情があった。人間の子供には、そうした事情はない。これが、両者間に、紐付け強度の違いを生み出したのだ。従って、ここには、集合記憶感情伝達が働いている。どのような視点から見ても、「親や大人の真似を強くしたがる傾向」を生まれたばかりのチンパンジーの子供が後天的に社会から学習することはあり得ない。

一方、「子供が親や大人の真似をする傾向が際立ったものであれば、そのこと自体が、一つの文化パターンを示している」と言って良いだろう。従って、ここでは、集合記憶感情伝達が文化の伝承の担い手になっている。

そもそも、文化の伝播には、二つのルートがある。

第一のルートはこの世に生じる。多くの人々(チンパンジーでもよい)の言動や情動によって、文化を構成する諸要素が或る集団内に溢れ、伝染し、共鳴して、拡大していく。現代では、マス・メディアやインターネットなどが、これを更に増幅する。過去の文書、芸術作品、遺物なども、大きな役割を果たしている。
第二のルートはあの世に生じる。集団的原型変化を伴う集合記憶感情伝達の働きである。あの世の或る集団の雲に、この世の共通経験の記憶とそれを支える意志エネルギーが或る量を越えて蓄積すると、その経験のこの世での有無に関係なく、その集団の子孫を含めた全メンバーの心に、その経験記憶に絡む感情をベースとした具現化した法則・論理・概念・イメージなどが本能のように湧き上がる。
第一ルートと第二ルートを繰り返し循環することによって、即ち、本仮説で言う創造循環によって、文化的諸要素はそのエネルギーを拡大し、時代を超えて伝播していく。

集合記憶感情伝達は、個々の生命に与えられた根源的な意志エネルギー由来の自由意志(詳細については「自由意志と本能」の項を参照のこと))の集合的・循環的な集積が或る量を超えることによって、これが原初からあの世に存在する普遍的な法則・論理・概念・イメージ・記憶・感情などの源と同じ性質を発揮することから生じる。そして、集合記憶感情伝達を支えるこのエネルギーが創造循環によって更に強まることによって、或る種の集合記憶感情は我々が本能と呼ぶものに変化していく。集合記憶感情伝達が文化の伝承の担い手になり得るということは、本能の中にも、文化の伝承の担い手になり得るものがあるいうことを意味している。

オオクワガタの飼育を40年も続けているが、時折考え込んでしまうことがある。それは昆虫ゼリーの食べ方だ。彼らの多くは、昆虫マットの細かい木屑(土のように見える)をゼリー容器に詰め込んで、奥のゼリーを取り出して食べている。大顎(角のように見える)が邪魔で、そのままでは食べられないからだ。
これは、一体何によるものなのか。集合記憶感情伝達によるものか。不透明な容器に単独で飼育されているオオクワガタが、先輩たちの行動を見て、後天的に学習しているとは思えない。意外に知能が高く、自分で考え、自分で工夫しているのか。面白いことに容器の奥まで頭が入るメスでも、時折、この食べ方をする。この方が最後まで食べ易いのだろう。少なくとも、この行動は、この種に共通な道具の使い方、即ち、文化であると言える。

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