10)自由意志と本能

自分では自由にやっていると思っているが、正確に見れば、系統発生上の長い動物過程を通して形成された集合記憶感情・本能(「集合記憶感情伝達」「文化の伝承」の項を参照のこと)の奴隷になっている場合が多いという話をしよう(この他にも、個人的・後天的に作り上げてしまった心の紐付け、例えば、悪癖などの奴隷になっている場合も考えられるが)。ここで言いたいことは、「この集合記憶感情・本能をすべて捨てろ」ということではない。肉体を維持するためには、捨てることのできない、又、捨てる必要のない健全なものも多数あるからだ。
しかし、我々は、「集団的・遺伝的に紐付けられた集合記憶感情・本能は、自分の自由意志が選択したものではない」ということを、明確に理解する必要がある。集合記憶感情・本能を支える強い欲望に逆らえず、「分かってはいるが止められない」と言う人も多い。また、動物同様、全く気付かない人もいる。これが、人類の現状である。

「個体発生は系統発生を繰り返す」という生物学の有名な言葉がある。心の中でも系統発生を繰り返しているのだろう、動物的な欲望丸出しの若者が多く見られる。大人に成って、意識の中で自己と他者は明確に分離され、体の中で若々しい生命エネルギーが漲る。これらが、子孫獲得や生存競争を求めて本能を丸出しにする。ちなみに、カブトムシのオスは、「生きるため、食べる、休む」、「子孫を残すため、メスと交尾する」、「食べるため、子孫を残すため、戦う」が生活の基本である。「若い内は、これも必要」と笑っていられるが、昨今、分別盛りである筈の大人のバランスの悪さが、「人類は動物に逆戻りしたか」のような印象を与える。

微妙な感覚や欲望を含めて感情の定義を広く取れば、感情は全ての意味と価値の源であり、全ての意思決定は、これを起点とする。そして、創造主という「意志と創造の力を駆使する根源的な生命意識(自然宇宙そのもの)」とそこから流れ出て個々の生命に分け与えられる自由意志(生命意識の分力)だけが、集合記憶感情・本能の底を流れる広い定義の感情を制御する力を持っているのである(分力たる自由意志は創造主とは異なり、その力と及ぶ範囲は制限されているが)。

自由意志とは、因果の結果ではない独立した新しい原因(原因としてすぐに因果の流れに合流するが)を自分自身で作り出す力である。集合記憶感情・本能だけに衝き動かされていては、自由意志が働く余地はない。しかし、集合記憶感情・本能を満たす行為の過程で、自由意志の働く余地が全くない訳ではない。一工夫すれば、そのどこかで、自由意志を働かすことができる。例えば、料理の楽しみ方や食事の作法にも、自由意志の働く余地は大いにある。
自由意志は、自然宇宙の因果の流れの中で複雑に連鎖し関連し合って存在する諸要素の下、過去の因果から独立した新しい原因をそこに投下する。そして、その新しい原因がその時点での無数の周辺要素と絡み合って、大きな因果の流れに合流して行く。自由意志の働きとは日常的なものであり、決して大袈裟なものではない。大したものではないのが普通だし、逆に、後世に大きな影響を残す新発見や新発明に繋がるものもある。
「自由意志によって生み出されるもの、全てが、必ずしも良いものではない」ということにも注意したい。人間の自由意志には、人類を絶滅させる力もある。創造主は、「人類が、持続的な繁栄に向かうのか、絶滅に向かうのか」を、人類の自由意志に任せているのである。

行き過ぎた物欲や便利さに支配され、どこまで大量生産・大量消費・大量輸送を続けるのか。自然宇宙にある各諸要素の深遠なる繋がり、変化、バランス、循環に無関心のまま、自然環境・人間社会を、どこまで破壊し続けるのか。自由、平等、民主を口先で唱えはするが、経済計算を何よりも優先する先進国の政治・経済のリーダーたちは、本当に人類社会を持続的な繁栄に導けるのか。
旧約聖書に記されたバベルの塔を思い出すと、リーダーたちの所為にばかりはしていられない。一般民衆が、自分で考え、自分で行動し、世の中を変えなければならない。リーダーたちは、一般民衆の集団エネルギーを自分たちに都合よく利用することはできるが、それが確固としたものになれば、それに逆らうことはできない。この意味で、日本の先の大戦も、時の支配層やマス・メディアなどに、言い換えれば、命令、教育、情報などに翻弄されたとはいえ、根本的には、一般民衆の集団エネルギーが引き起こした事件に他ならない。

「ゴリラとチンパンジーは近縁で、人間は進化して高く遠くにある」と思っている人が多い。ところが、2001年に人間のゲノムが解読され、2005年にチンパンジーのゲノムが解読された。どちらのゲノムも4種類の塩基が30億程度連なって構成されており、「その配列の98.8%は同じ、わずか1.2%だけが違う」ということが判明した。ゴリラの方が離れているのだ。
ゴリラは破壊力が大きいので、同種の他のグループとの争いはなるべく避ける。人間とチンパンジーは、ゴリラと比べて力が弱い。その所為か、同種の他のグループとは激しく争う。チンパンジーは、敵グループの子供を引き裂いて食べてしまうことさえある。「人間が戦争好きなのは、遺伝子が証明している」などと考えると、滅入ってしまう。実際、人間はチンパンジーと同様に共食いする動物である。この状態から脱却し、持続的な繁栄に辿り着けるのかどうかは、一般民衆の自由意志、即ち、心の進化に掛っている。

昔から多くの人が、次のようなことを言っている。「人類の10%は、教えられなくても、自分で考える、自分で行動する」、「次の10%は、知識は重視するが、自発的には、考えない、行動もしない」、「残りの80%は自分で考えない、周りを見て、パワーのあるもの、面白そうなもの、流行っているもの、に追随する」と。考えてみれば、今の政治家の多くは、この80%にパンとサーカスを与えて飼い慣らし、権力を掌中に納めようとしている。大企業の多くは、この80%に向けて、誇大広告を大量発信して金儲けに邁進している。

最初の10%には、知識教育が必要である。思索の森で迷子にならないための、独り善がりにならないための道標を与える。次の10%には、自発的に考えられるようにアンテナの立て方を教える。また乾いた知識と潤いのある生きた知識体系の違いを教えなければならない。問題は残りの80%だ。彼らには、多少なりとも自分自身で考え自分自身で行動することに、意味と価値を感じて貰わなければならない。行き過ぎた外側だけの人真似や流行追いが、なぜ稚拙なのかを分かって貰う必要がある。包装用紙は美しくても、その中身には不公正や不公平が含まれていることもある。それが、今、多くの人々の賛同を得ていたとしても、やがて自己破滅に繋がるものもある。

一方、この割合には、創造主の偉大な知恵が隠されている。回り回って、これが、社会の安定的な循環バランスを保っているのだ。全ての人々が、自分自身で考え自分自身の意見を主張して社会に参加したら、社会はまとまらず、集団としての方向性を失ってしまう。80%は有力な考えに追随して、社会をまとめ、その方向性を決定する重要な役割を担っているのだ。実際、良くも悪くも、この多数派80%が何を感じどう動くかで、世の中の流れが決まってくる。独裁国家であろうが、民主主義国家であろうが、この自然の仕組みが働いていることは、歴史書を繙けば容易に理解できる。この多数派80%の心の進化に期待する所以である。

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