17)人間と人工知能

人工知能が人間の精神活動を凌駕する時点というような意味でシンギュラリティーという言葉が独り歩きしている。計算力や記憶力というように限定した意味では、とうの昔に人工知能は人間を越している。これが、その範囲や深さを拡げ、人間による新たなプログラムの追加投入なしに、組み込まれたプログラムが自動的に次々と新しいプログラムを生み出し、データ収集も進み、やがて、こうして累積されたものが人間の全精神活動を網羅し、且つ、凌駕するという意味であろうか。

これを本気で言っているのであれば、人工知能はどのような仕組みで出来ているのかという原理を理解していないのか、または、人間の心・精神活動とは何かという、大昔から多くの哲学者たちが考えに考え抜いて未だ明確な答えを出すことのできない難問を忘れているからだ。

人工知能は、全て、人間が投入するプログラム(命令)によって作動する。従って、人工知能が行う意思決定は、このプログラム(命令)に直接的に沿ったものか、これら(複数のプログラムの絡みも含めて)から引き出される論理的帰結に限定される。言い換えれば、「人工知能に自由意志はない」ということが明確に言い得るのだ。

自由意志とは、因果の結果ではない新しい原因を自分自身で作り出す意志の力である。自由意志は、自然宇宙の因果の流れの中で複雑に連鎖し関連し合って存在する諸要素の下、過去の因果から独立した新しい原因をそこに投下する。そして、それがその時点での無数の周辺要素と絡み合って、大きな因果の流れに合流して行く。例えば、「今、持っている鉛筆を左に倒すか右に倒すか」という意志→決定→行動の実験を思い浮かべてみよう。あなたは自分の意志で自由に、左にも、右にも、鉛筆を倒すことができる。結果として左に倒した時に、「左に倒そうと働いた意志そのものが過去の原因の結果だ」と言う人もいるが、「通常の環境下では、右に倒すこともできた筈」と考える方が妥当である。自分自身の意志が初めての原因となって左に倒したと考えられる。この力が自由意志である。

公平を期すため、「左に倒しても、右に倒しても、全ては過去の原因の結果だ」とする、いわゆる決定論についても言及しておこう。これによれば、自然宇宙は、創造神、または、偶然によって、原初に生み出されたものが原因となって、どこまでも、きっちり決定されたプログラム(法則とその力)に沿って変化し、進行することになる。即ち、「自由意志は存在しない、全ては原初から決定されている」という説である。この説が正しいとする場合にのみ、人工知能が人間の全精神活動を凌駕することはあり得る。なぜなら、全てきっちりプログラムに従って活動する人間の精神(この場合の人間は、自然のアンドロイド)は、人工知能と本質的に何の違いもないからである。

一方、人間の精神活動に自由意志が存在するとすれば、人工知能が人間の全精神活動を凌駕することは不可能である。なぜなら、人工知能は、いつでも、人間が投入するプログラム(命令)に沿って働く仕組みであり、これから引き出される論理的帰結を離れて、人工知能が自らの自由意志で新たな意思決定をする力は、前述の通り、存在しない。即ち、人間は自由意志を駆使できるが、人工知能はこれができない。従って、少なくとも、この点においては、人工知能が人間を凌駕することは永遠にあり得ないのである。

ここで、決定論の問題点を挙げてみよう。この説は大変無責任な状況を生み出すのだ。倫理感情も論理も、全てが人間にとって意味をなくす。全ては決まった通りに変化し、進んでいるだけだから。戦争をするのも、暴虐非道の限りを尽くすのも、初めから決まっているのだから、何をしても人間に責任はなくなる。この説は正誤を問う前に、人間の存在意義を否定するものとなる。

一方、自由意志の存在を肯定した場合、人間(正確には、自由意志を持つ全てのもの)は、自然宇宙の進化に責任を持つことになる。大部分が既に出来上っているようにも見える自然宇宙の中にあって、それでも、自由意志を駆使して自然宇宙の創造に尽力する存在、それが、人間というものである。ここに、アンドロイドではない人間の真の自由がある。そして、筆者は、自由意志の存在を信じている。ここに、自然宇宙の根源である普遍的な意志性・創造性・生命性が宿っているのだ。

人工知能脅威論については、別の視点から説明したい。例えば、或る人間が、或る基準をベースにして人間の知能指数を測定するプログラムを人工知能に投入したとしよう。さらに、「知能指数50以下の人間を殺傷せよ」というプログラムも追加する。この場合、その人工知能の手足となるロボットは、自由意志による判断も感情もなく、そのように、人間を殺傷する。

だが、これは人工知能による脅威ではない。人間の問題である。従って、脅威となるものは、未来社会に於いても、人工知能ではなく、人間の心の中に存在するのである。

別の言い方をすれば、人工知能は、人間の使い方次第で、良くも働き、悪くも働くものなのだ。限定された分野に於いては、人間の能力を遥かに凌駕する優れものであることは、もう誰にでも分かっている。現時点に於いて、既に、そのように働き、人工知能なしでは切り開くことのできなかった新領域へ人類を導いている。即ち、より良い未来社会形成のために、人工知能の活躍は必要不可欠なのである。だが、繰り返しになるが、これは、人間による意思決定、それを反映したプログラミングがまず初めにあることを理解しなくてはならない。

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